Constitution post of President of India falls vacant on 24th July 2012 as the tenure of the current President of India Pratibha Patil of 5 years ends on 24th july.
So here i will be explaining the basis level of procedure involved in selecting the President in India
The president in india is not selected directly by its people ,rather it is selected by the electoral college.
Electoral college consists of elected members of both the houses of parliament(Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha) and the state legislative assembly( Vidhan Sabha).
The voters of the election are:-
1. MPs of Lok Sabha
2. MPs of Rajya Sabha
3. MLAs of vidhan sabha
The Value of vote of MPs and each MLA is different.
The President of India is elected according to secret ballot by the system of proportional representation through single transferable vote. An attempt is made to secure the uniformity of representation of the different states, according to population and the total number of elected members of legislative Assembly of each state so that parity may be maintained between the state as a whole and the union. This has been done to ensure that the votes of the states shall be equal to that of population of the country. This makes the representative of the President broad based.
Procedure to calculate Vote of MLAs from each state:
The value of vote of MLA depends state by state or we can say MLA of each state has different value of his vote.
Divide the total population of the state by Total seat in Vidhansabha of that state and again divide it by 1000 and the result will be the value of vote of MLA.
For example According 1991 census the population of Orissa was 31,659,736 and the member of elected members of the legislative assembly was 147. The formula to determine the weight of vote is
1) Divide total population by total number of assembly seats
2) Divide the result by 1000.
Neglect the decimal part if it is less than 500
3) So each member of the legislative assembly of Orissa will cast 215 VOTES
This process is followed for all the legislative assembly of all the states
Procedure to calculate Vote of MPs
Each member of parliament (either from Lok Sabha or Rajya Sabha) will cast vote equal to the formula
Total number of votes of all the MLAs/total number of elected MPs
Lets us assume that total number of votes of all MLAs is 554459
Total strength of the elected MPs is 783.
In this assumption the weight of votes of each M.P. is 708. The fraction of 1 in this case has been ignored.
In the election of the President of India the members of the Electoral College are allowed to exercise their preferences for the candidates in order of their choice. Each voter is allowed to exercise as many preferences as candidates are there. The voter indicates his order of preferences on the ballot paper. A candidate in order to be elected must secure his quota of votes which is 50% of valid votes +1. If no candidate secures the quota or the number of votes required to win, subsequent rounds of counting shall be taken up. The counting will continue till a candidate gets the quota of votes required to win.
Suppose candidate get first prefernce votes like:-
1. Bhairo singh shekhawat—- 5,250
2. Pratibha Patil — —————-4,800
3. Ram Lal—————————- 2,700
4. Mohan singh——- ————2,250
Total Number of Valid votes = 5250 + 4800 + 2700 + 2250 = 15000
15000/2 = 7500
So a candidate need 7501 votes to win the election, as you can see no one has got that
Now Last candidate will be out of the race and his votes will be distributed between remaining three on the basis of second preference.
Now Mohan singh is out of the race his first preference votes are 2250 now suppose in these 2250 ballot papers the second preference is recorded as :-
Bhairo singh shekhawat – 300
Pratibha Patil – 1050
Ram Lal – 900
These will be transferred and added to the first preferences in favour of 1, 2 and 3 as follows
A . Bhairo singh shekhawat.. 5,250 + 300 = 5,550
B Pratibha Patil.. 4,800 + 1050 = 5,850
C . Ram Lal-. 2,700 + 900 = 3,600
Now in the second count, therefore, C having obtained the last number of votes is eliminated and 3,600 votes secured by him are once again transferred to A and B in the order of third preferences recorded thereon.
Suppose the third preferences on the 3,600 ballot papers recorded in favour of A and B are 1700 and 1900 respectively the result of this second transfer would then be as under:
A Bhairo singh shekhawat. 5,550 + 1,700 = 7,250
B Pratibha Patil 5,850 + 1,900 = 7,750
Now Pratibha patil have votes more than 7501 so she wins.
As you can see in first preference Bhairo singh shekhawat was ahead but at last Pratibha patil wins.